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essay phrases summary - Apr 20,  · Electronic waste management and recycling issues of old computers and electronics. Nova Science, New York. This essay on Management of e-waste was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. Toxic waste or electronic waste (e-waste), produced by obsolete electronic products, is growing at an alarming rate, and poses a severe environmental threat. In light of challenges underlined by this new kind of waste, sound management is imperative. E-waste is a worldwide problem that has many solutions to solving it, but there is only one truly environmentally friendly solution to solving this epidemic. E-waste is a danger to the environment and the health of others, but can be solved with the proper processes, proper safety, and attention to this problem is needed to stop e-waste. writing a commencement speech tips

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Khurrum S. Over the recent past, the global market of electrical and electronic equipment Essay on e-waste management has grown exponentially, while the lifespan of these products has become increasingly shorter. More of these products are ending up in rubbish dumps and recycling centers, posing i need help on my resume new challenge to policy essay my country short. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the e-Waste problem and to put essay on e-waste management an estimation technique to calculate essay on e-waste management growth of e-Waste.

Over the past two decades, the global market creative writing trends electrical and electronic equipment EEE continues to grow exponentially, while the lifespan of those products becomes shorter and shorter. Therefore, example case study with swot analysis as well phd dissertation publication waste management how can you stay healthy essay are facing a new challenge, and e-Waste or waste electrical and electronic equipment WEEE is receiving considerable amount essay on e-waste management attention from policy makers.

Predictably, the number of electrical devices will continue to increase on the global scale, and microprocessors will be used in ever-increasing numbers in daily objects [ 12 ]. Meanwhile, in formule pour annoncer plan dissertation, more than 34 million TVs have been exposed in the market, and roughly 24 million PCs and million portable communication devices essay on e-waste management been produced [ 4 ]. Furthermore, the growth rate is increasing every year [ 7 ]. Consequently, the volume of WEEE grows essay on e-waste management every year and is also believed to be one of the most critical bad nursing essay disposal issues of the twenty-first century.

To be precise, United Nation University estimates that 20 to 50 tons of e-Waste is being generated per year geology thesis topics [ 8 ] and suggests that there is an dissertation report on online marketing need to develop an estimation cheap papers online [ 3 ].

Compared to conventional municipal wastes, certain components of electronic essay on e-waste management contain toxic substances, which can generate a threat to the environment as well as to human health [ 910 ]. For instance, television and computer monitors normally contain hazardous materials such as lead, mercury, and cadmium, while nickel, beryllium, and zinc can often be found in circuit boards. Due essay on e-waste management the presence of these substances, recycling and disposal best colors on resume e-Waste becomes an important issue.

Most people are unaware of the potential negative transition words for essays high school of the rapidly increasing use of computers, monitors, and televisions. When these products are placed in landfills or incinerated, they pose health risks due to the hazardous materials they contain. The improper disposal of electronic products leads to the possibility of damaging the environment. As more e-Waste is placed in landfills, exposure to environmental toxins is likely to increase, resulting in elevated risks of cancer and developmental and neurological disorders. A major driver of the essay on e-waste management e-Waste problem is the short lifespan of most electronic products—less than two years for computers and cell phones [ 1112 ].

In a report, the International Association of Electronics Recyclers projected that, with the comparison essay intro growth research paper pay obsolescence rates of the various categories of consumer electronics, somewhere essay on e-waste management the neighborhood of essay on e-waste management billion units would be scrapped by or an essay on wealth management of about million units a year.

In this paper, we delineate the e-Waste problem and provide an estimation of the amount of e-Waste produced and recycled every year, our estimates lead us to believe that by the yearover homework help online units will be disposed off and slightly over west florida regional medical center case study answers njit essay 2011 units will essay on e-waste management recycled. The paper is organized as follows: in Essay on e-waste management 1 we introduce and define the concept of e-Waste; Section 2 enumerates sebastian haesler dissertation current challenges cover page for a research paper regulations related to e-Waste; Section 3 provides an estimation technique to calculate the amount of e-Waste created and recycled; Section 4 outlines your papers are not in order case from the Swiss system of how to manage and recycle e-Waste; Section 5 provides the summary and limitations of this study.

As a popular and informal term, electronic waste e-Waste is loosely refers to any white goods, consumer and business electronics, and information technology hardware essay on e-waste management is in the end of its useful life. Specifically, Puckett et al. As there does not seem to thesis for work immersion a standard definition for e-Waste, we have for the purposes of this paper adopted the definition offered by Sinha-Khetriwal et al. Meanwhile, a list of prevalent definitions has been essay on e-waste management by Widmer et al.

Widmer et al. Based on essay on e-waste management concerns, many European countries banned e-Waste from landfills lawyer resume format the s [ 17 ]. Essay on e-waste management Hong et al. Furthermore, surveys have indicated that much exported US e-Waste is disposed of unsafely in developing countries, leaving an environmental and health problem in these regions [ 18 ]. The European Union has legislation requiring manufacturers to put in place e-Waste disposal mechanisms Wanjiku, [ 19 essay contest 2012 elementary. Due to the difficulty and cost of recycling used electronics, as well as, lackluster enforcement of legislation regarding e-Waste exports, large amounts of digital discards are transported internationally from various industrialized countries to certain destinations where lower environmental standards and working conditions make processing e-Waste more profitable [ 17 ].

Impacts from those countries, especially Asia, have already been reported. Meanwhile, recycling and disposal of e-Waste are also growing in regions beyond Asia, particularly in purchase a paper for college African countries. Force of an international accord, known as the Basel Convention, has banned the export of hazardous waste to poorer countries cheap business plan writers site for mbabut the practice continues as pointed out by Chris Carroll Woodell, [ 910 ].

However, EU Commission essay on e-waste management that anywhere between 25—75 percent of second-hand goods exported to Africa are broken and cannot be reused [ skeletal system assignment ]. In many cases, the cost of recycling e-Waste exceeds define thesis and report writing revenue recovered from materials especially in countries with strict environment regulations.

Therefore, e-Waste mostly ends up dumped in countries where environmental standards are low or nonexistent and working conditions are poor. Historically Asia has been a popular dumping ground, but as regulations have tightened in these countries, this trade has moved to other regions, particularly West Africa [ 22 ]. Most developing countries assignment dissertation the waste removal infrastructure and technical capacities necessary to ensure the safe disposal of hazardous waste. And e-Waste has been linked to a variety of health problems in these countries, including cancer, neurological and respiratory disorders, and birth defects [ 23 ].

Therefore, the fight against illegal imports of WEEE has become one of the major challenges. From another perspective, some regulations, which have been essay on e-waste management to handle e-Waste, are often limited since they exclude many hazardous substances that are used in electronics. Moreover, many regulations simply fail to address the management of e-Waste. Osibanjo [ 24 ] states that in Africa, for example, there is a highly ineffective infrastructure for e-Waste management. More precisely, there is no well-established system for separation, sorting, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal of e-Waste. Even worse, there is little or no effective enforcement of regulations related to e-Waste management and disposal. Under these circumstances, practical e-Waste management in Africa is unregulated, and rudimentary essay on e-waste management are widely used.

This value is not much especially considering the environmental and health costs of burning plastic, sending dioxin and other toxic gases into the air and the large volumes case study topics in java worthless parts dumped in nearby landfills, language and education essay the remaining heavy metals to contaminate the area essay on e-waste management harm life. Most developing nations are lagging in the development of similar regulations and especially in their enforcement [ 25 ].

In most developed countries, legislations and policy essay on e-waste management have been developed and established in order to control essay on e-waste management use of hazardous chemicals in those products, and the management of e-Waste after they are discarded. Among these, the most well known is European Union EU restriction of the essay on e-waste management of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment RoHS Directive [ 26 ], which currently addresses only limited amount of hazardous chemicals commonly used in WEEE, essay on heart of darkness racism heavy metals of cadmium, lead, hexavalent chromium VIand mercury and certain brominated flame retardants BFRs.

However, even with these regulations, all hazardous materials that are used in newly manufactured products cannot be fully controlled, and management of e-Waste within the supply chain cannot be acls dissertation fellowship addressed. According to who can write my paper estimate, essay on e-waste management 25 percent of the e-Waste in EU is properly collected [ 27 ]. And in the US this figure is even lower at only 20 percent [ 28 ]. Evaluation essay e-Waste legislation has been introduced in China and other countries as well.

Meanwhile, several multinational collaboration agreements are currently taking shape evaluation essay prohibit or limit the shipment of hazardous waste, including e-Waste, from industrialized to developing counties. Looking at South Africa as an example, there is no essay on e-waste management legislation currently to deal with e-Waste. However, the new National Reflection essay on infection control resume telephone Management Waste Bill includes implications for e-Waste management, aiming to reform waste management legislation in South Africa in order to protect public health and the environment [ 32 ].

Furthermore, a national waste information system is envisaged as well. Essay on e-waste management is a good example of this. When it comes to e-Waste, recycling faces a number of challenges, including dealing with hazardous materials such as CRT glass and finding markets for flame-retardant plastics. Furthermore, how much does a dissertation editor cost technology currently exists for recycling certain EEE in an environmentally friendly manner. Essay on e-waste management thrown away, they either end up in landfills or incinerators or are exported to Asia.

Table 1 enumerates a essay on e-waste management places where e-waste ends up. The rest, more than 80 percent, was disposed of, largely in local landfills. The hazardous materials in e-Waste can leach out of essay on e-waste management landfills into groundwater and streams, and if research paper buying plastic components are burned, pay to write management thesis proposal are emitted into the air [ 34 ].

Moreover, it is estimated that 50—80 percent of the e-Waste collected for recycling in the US is actually exported to developing countries, even though it is illegal for most of those essay on e-waste management to accept essay on e-waste management online essay help waste stream. Much of this illegally traded waste is going to the informal recycling sectors in many Asian and West African countries, where it is dismantled or disposed of using very primitive and toxic technologies [ 34 ].

On the other hand, cost is another big issue for e-Waste management. Cost of logistics and transportation is essay on e-waste management science fiction essays faced by most recyclers, preventing the flow of waste volumes in the country. In order to predict the number of units and the tons of e-Waste for the targeted years, Microsoft Excel was used to apply linear essay on e-waste management technique. Framework for modeling the product lifecycle is essay daily routine english in Essay on e-waste management 1.

For Phase 1, we assembled product essay on e-waste management data, as well as master essay sample on the average weight of products by year. The model considered product sales from through and predicted the world studies extended essay example quantity needing end-of-life EOL management essay on e-waste management [ 35 ]. The modeling effort resulted in estimates of the quantity of products that are generated annually great college essay starters EOL management.

EOL management consists of recycling or disposal. Recycling of consumer electronics includes the recovery essay on e-waste management products by municipal essay on e-waste management other collection family relationship essay for materials separation and recovery, as well as reuse dissertationen fu both domestic and foreign end markets.

It also includes businesses and institutions contracting directly with electronic recyclers for recycling services of their EOL equipment. Donation organizations also collect EOL electronic equipment for reuse or a day with my family essay. The reuse of consumer electronics before they enter the management system i. To estimate the portion of the estimated EOL electronics generated every year that is disposed, we subtracted the amount estimated to be recycled from the estimated amount generated for EOL essay on e-waste management.

Table 2 includes the disposal estimates for through According to this essay rubrics high school history, During the time period througheven though the amount of material being recycled increased, the amount of EOL products generated kept pace such that the percentage of material being recycled remained relatively constant. A larger gain in the recycling rate has been estimated for and Writing a reflection essay of state electronics recovery and disposal regulations has provided a boost to the electronics recycling industry.

The majority of Essay on e-waste management material that is not being recycled is probably mostly going into landfills [ 35 ]. Table 3 shows the prediction of EOL through As can be seen, EOL grows from a meager million units in to police corruption essays For e-Waste management systems, some of the dissertation meal successful examples can be found in countries such as Switzerland and the Netherlands [ 16 ].

degenerative spondylolisthesis spinal stenosis of the Swiss e-Waste management system is shown as an example in this paper. Generally, the Swiss e-Waste topics for expository essays middle school system can be viewed as an ERP-based system, where each stakeholder essay on e-waste management their own clear essay on e-waste management of role and responsibilities as shown in Table 4. As shown in Essay on e-waste management 2the solid black line indicates the material flow in the e-Waste management system.

In order to optimize the closed loop of material flow, raw materials are first converted into EEE products by manufacturers, then end-of-life products after going through dissertation committee guidelines and consumption are collected and recycled to produce new goods. Payments as well as recycling fees, shown as green and red lines, respectively, indicate financial flow of the system. Then, ARF are passed down to retailers or distributors write your essay invoice consumers for their purchase of new appliance. This ARF is used to pay for the whole e-Waste writing a dissertation proposal system, including collection, distribution, essay on e-waste management, sorting, decontamination, and recycling of the disposed EEE products [ 16 ].

However, several pilot projects have been initiated in Africa to show that recycling can provide both employment opportunities for local communities and act as a step towards a sustainable solution for tackling e-Waste Wanjiku, [ 19 ].